“A Country Parish” from "Reminiscences of an Octogenarian, 1847 to 1934" by Edmund Knox  researched by Dr Kevin Feltham (2000)

Edmund Arbuthnott Knox was born in 1847 and became a Sub-Warden of Merton College in Oxford before being offered the parish of Kibworth in 1885. He moved on, in 1891, to become Rector of Aston in Birmingham and eventually was appointed Bishop of Manchester. In later life he published “Reminiscences of an Octogenarian, 1847 to 1934” and this includes a chapter on his time in the Kibworths. This is a fascinating insight into the parish more than a century ago. See how little has changed!!

This is part 2 - for some other reminiscences see part 1

Church Services

Merton College Chapel and St. John the Baptist’s Church had accustomed me to surpliced choirs and to preaching in the surplice. The surplice in the pulpit was no matter of conscience to me. There were no illegal ornaments on the Holy Table, and I saw no harm in continuing the established custom of changing frontals according to the seasons. Wafers were not used, nor was the mixed chalice. Early Communions were preferred by some of the communicants, but I came across none who looked upon midday Communions as almost sinful. The Sunday-school teachers whom I found in office continued at their posts, and attended such instruction as I offered them. The district visitors also remained at their posts.

Finding that no one attended the daily morning service but myself, I dropped it. I doubt whether I should do so now.  But the significant fact was that I could accept my predecessor’s arrangements without any noticeable change, and found that the parishes of my neighbours observed much the same order as that which was used in Kibworth. There was, in fact, at that time, a practical uniformity, to which an Evangelical could conform quite conscientiously, though he might have preferred the gown in the pulpit and a choir placed where they could support congregational singing.  The choir in the chancel was really one of the blunders of the “Puseyites,” as they were called.  Readers of George Eliot’s novels, so true to Midland rural life, will remember how genuinely she regretted the disappearance of the old village choir at the west end of the church.  It had its grave faults, but it had its merits also, and one of these was its support of congregational singing.

The congregation to which I was called to minister consisted of many social elements. There were retired officers attracted to the neighbourhood by its hunting celebrity—the spacious well-fenced grazing fields and covers were all that a sportsman’s heart could desire.  Foxes abounded: before I had been Rector more than a fortnight I was aware of one staring at me in my garden.   He really seemed anxious to have a good look at the new Rector or to pay his respects to him.

Next in order came two doctors, a few professional men, a solicitor or two, business men from Leicester, some retired and some going daily still to their affairs.   Vaughan  of Leicester - a great   name in Tractarian days - was  their type of a true church parson, and ibis influence on their devotional life was still to be traced long after he was gone.

Then came the graziers, often men of considerable capital and great shrewdness. Some of them were the very backbone of the congregation and of parochial organisation, of whom I cannot but name my dear friend, Harry T. Grant, still living and still one of the churchwardens.  Woe be to the man who crossed swords with these graziers imagining them to be thick-headed Bæotians.   So Bishop Magee found, when he tried to bully two of them - wardens of a neighbouring parish - to farm a glebe during the voidance of the benefice. They refused to do it because the glebe could only be farmed at a loss.  Patiently, maybe his Lordship thought even stupidly, they listened to his impressive laying down of the law on the duties of churchwardens.

When the Bishop had finished, and, as he supposed, had laid them flat, one of them meekly produced a bit of blue paper and asked: “Would this, my Lord; have anything to do with what you have been saying?”  “This” was a-notification from the Archdeacon that they could not perform any of the functions of churchwardens since they had not paid their fees, nor taken their oaths.  It was the Bishop’s turn to be laid flat and to beg them meekly to help him out of the difficulty.

After the graziers came smaller farmers, tradesmen, and then stockeners, artisans and agricultural labourers.  I had a congregation in which all ranks, from the Duchess of Hamilton to labourers, were represented.  Indeed, the morning congregation was usually a mixed congregation from the social point of view - and the evening congregation more uniform.

The period of my Kibworth ministry included the appearance of Lux Mundi. [Ed. a collection of 12 essays by liberal Anglo-Catholic theologians published in 1889. It was edited by Charles Gore, then the principal of Pusey House, Oxford and a future Bishop of Oxford.]

Epoch-making as this work was in the history of our Church, from the point of view of my memoir it was hardly important at all.  Incidentally it was an admission that the leaders of what now called itself Catholic thought did not any longer make Scripture the seat of authority for their faith. It was a departure from Tractarian traditions so complete that it is said to have broken Liddon’s heart.  To Evangelicals it seemed no new thing. that opponents of the Reformation should seek to undermine the authority of Scripture. That feature of the Lux Mundi essays was to us more salient than their attempt to find a basis of faith which could make room for acceptance of scientific discovery without surrendering the great doctrines of the Catholic Faith.

Many of us took the book less seriously than we ought to have taken it. Others deplored its repudiation of the inerrancy of the Bible. This is not the place to discuss the Anglo-Catholic theology and its consequences as they revealed themselves in after years. At the moment, that is, at the end of the ‘80’s, the significance of Lux Mundi lay in its being symptomatic of a change which affected a far larger circle than the Anglo-Catholics. That change was the surrender of the absolute necessity of accepting Scripture as a final authority in matters of science and history. Very slowly, but in ever-widening circles, that necessity was beginning to be surrendered.

Kibworth Rectory

NormanRectory

No account of Kibworth would be complete without mention of my home. Kibworth Rectory lies, perhaps a little too much, under the shelter of Kibworth churchyard, and I never felt quite sure that the well, on which we depended, was as immune from the drainage of this near neighbour as it was confidently affirmed to be. However, we suffered no ill effects, and it was manifestly convenient to be so near the Church.

The house was a large, soundly-built brick house standing on ample cellars. It was built at the end of the eighteenth century by a Rector, Norman, who was said never to have come near it except to collect his tithes. Certainly there was no trace of his name in the Parish Register. It was exactly the house that Jane Austen’s Mrs. Elton would have approved, with its lofty hall and reception-rooms - its bay windows looking out on the rectory garden and fields, its shrubbery with a marvellous wealth of aconites, primroses of all shades of colour, and wild violets - its spacious walled kitchen garden, its sunny flower garden sheltered from north and east winds.

Nowhere have I seen finer strawberries, raspberries, and Victoria plums than those we grew in the rectory garden. We had a well-built stable between us and the churchyard, a snug rookery, and rook-pies in their season - we had our cowshed, and fields, and like Herrick, our cows and a few sheep disporting themselves in our own fields. What more could we wish?

Well - it was our bad taste, no doubt, but with all its undoubted amenities, we (that is my dear wife and I) found Leicestershire singularly unpicturesque, and were not quite as enthusiastic about its beauties as our callers expected us to be. Driven by one of these enthusiasts into a corner in his zeal to maintain the superior beauty of Leicestershire, I tried to escape by saying that, coming from Oxford, we rather missed the river.

“The river!” he cried, “have you not yet seen Saddington reservoir?”  I had not, and was promised a free ticket to inspect its wondrous beauty.  We did miss, and did not cease to miss, both the natural beauties and the architecture of Oxford.

Kibworth Church

StWilfrids

Kibworth Church, a thirteenth-century Church of the good standard prevailing through Leicestershire, was justly admired by the villagers, and we had to forget how f

ar it fell short of the glories of Merton Chapel. Leicestershire Church builders erected Churches beautiful in the perpendicular style, and well suited, as a rule, to the size of the parishes that they served. They made no attempt to emulate the splendour of the Lincoln-shire church builders.

Kibworth, indeed, had lost a very beautiful spire through the incompetence of the builder who was at work on some repairs and ignorantly removed the keystone of the arch. “It came down,” said a neighbour who watched it fall at some miles’ distance, “with the most perfect curtsey of a most polished lady.” The vestry, which had to restore it by a Church rate, built a tower, but no spire.

To this Kibworth home I brought my dear wife, Ellen Penelope, and four children. Two were added during our residence there. My dear wife, as I have already said, was the eldest daughter of Thomas Valpy French, Bishop of Lahore, and Mary Anne Janson of Walthamstow. In her were united strains of most finished scholarship and of artistic culture, inherited from the Jansons, who were of Dutch extraction. Her home as a child, owing to her father’s missionary wanderings, had been for many years with her grandparents at Walthamstow, in those days a picturesque village.

She was educated at Mrs. Umphleby’s school in Suffolk, and had exercised in that home-like school an extraordinary influence for good; she was a favourite scholar, proficient in the very sound literary education for which the school was noted, and was in musical and artistic culture proficient far above the average. These tastes and gifts sank almost into insignificance beside her natural beauty, her extraordinary charm of manner, her sweetness of disposition, unselfishness, and lovableness. Wherever she went she won all hearts, and especially laid her spell on young girls taught in her classes.

She is remembered still in Kibworth and at Aston. Whether Kibworth was really the home to combat the weakness which had led to our leaving Oxford I have since doubted. The Leicestershire clay was probably not so good for her as the Embleton sea air would have been. But all went well until the influenza scourge of 1889, more fatal often in its strange sequelae than in its immediate onset. She seemed to recover and went with me to Aston at the end of 1891, where her last long illness began soon after Christmas Day of that year.

She did not live to see the scholastic distinctions won by her children. All her boys won entrance Scholarships, two at Rugby and two at Eton, three of the four being first in their elections. Her eldest and favourite son is known to a wide public as the Editor of Punch. The literary productions of her four sons and one of her daughters fill several pages of the Catalogue in the British Museum.

Devoting herself wholeheartedly to the primary education of her children, my wife began to desire, as I did, that we might have a home where they could unite the benefits of home influence with first-class education. Our thoughts turned to work in some large town.

During these years I was in some demand for deputation work and for addressing clerical meetings. Twice I went to Manchester on the latter errand, and had’ a curious experience in connection therewith. I went to Manchester against doctor’s advice, signs of erysipelas having shown themselves on my head after a fall from my horse. As I persisted in going, the doctor begged me to keep on applying hot fomentations, as hot as I could bear them. I obeyed his orders vigorously, “boiled” my head all the evening, and when I presented myself to my host in the morning alarmed him by the redness on my skull. He insisted on my seeing his doctor, who was urgent that I should desist from speaking, till he asked what treatment I had been using. When he heard that, he said “Well, I should have used ice. I think you may preach, as you are so anxious about it.”

My dear wife was so anxious at that time to return to town life and work that she did not question my decision to move to Aston. Kibworth was not without its difficulties, and an undue share of these fell to the lot of the Rector’s wife.

Among the many valuable lessons which my time in a country parish had taught me, perhaps the most important was the limitation which the conditions of country residence impose on spiritual enterprise. I am very far from imagining that my own ministry had not grave defects arising out of my character, out of lack of faith in the power of God, and out of self-centredness. As I look back I am deeply humbled by the grave imperfections of my pastoral experience.

Especially was this the case before bicycles, to say nothing of motor cars and charabancs, brought the village into the world and the world into the village. Unfortunately the very fences of Eden concentrate attention on the one serpent, on the one forbidden tree, and little wrongs, little quarrels, little suspicions assume gigantic proportions. An illustration occurs to me. I asked a dying man whether he was in perfect charity with all his neighbours. He confessed that he was not, and had to be reconciled, without loss of time, to his next-door neighbour, to whom he had hardly spoken for twenty years. The trouble was all over a strip of pathway about half a yard broad dividing their two gardens.

All too short also was the friendship which we enjoyed with brother clergy and neighbours. Neighbourhoods were narrow when the one-horse carriage determined their limits. Yet we met very pleasantly for monthly clerical gatherings – a Scripture study, lunch or a stroll round the garden. Harvest thanksgivings brought us together. It was at one of these that a left-handed compliment was paid me as I excused myself from tea, having to preach at home and needing preparation. “I am sure; Mr. Knox,” said a lady, meaning to flatter me, “your sermons do not need much preparation.”

The End

“A Country Parish” from "Reminiscences of an Octogenarian, 1847 to 1934" by Edmund Knox; researched by Dr Kevin Feltham (2000)

Edmund Arbuthnott Knox was born in 1847 and became a Sub-Warden of Merton College in Oxford before being offered the parish of Kibworth in 1885. He moved on, in 1891, to become Rector of Aston in Birmingham and eventually was appointed Bishop of Manchester. In later life he published “Reminiscences of an Octogenarian, 1847 to 1934” and this includes a chapter on his time in the Kibworths. This is a fascinating insight into the parish more than a century ago. See how little has changed!!

Arrival

There are few people, certainly very few clergy, who doubt their competence to run a country parish. A nice little Church, not trying to the voice - a modest organ, which, at a pinch, the wife could play if necessary, a choir of boys from the Sunday school; backed by the gardener and a labourer or two - no week-night meetings worth mentioning, two of the old sermons cut down and simplified for village use each Sunday, no societies with tedious and tiresome accounts, no parish council likely to give difficulty, a good house, a delightful little garden with fresh-cut flowers and fresh vegetables - maybe a squire who will have to be placated, abundance of time for reading or learning the rudiments of horticulture.

So it seems to the outsider. But the vicar who comes into the country with these impressions is not long in altering his mind, and usually arrives at the conclusion that “his parish is a very exceptional parish.

I entered upon my work at Kibworth with very few of these illusions. Four years in an Oxford slum had taught me something about the difficulties of plain preaching and something too of the difficulties of wise almsgiving. Visits to my father’s parish in Rutland had shown me that Joseph Arch’s Agricultural Labourers’ Union had created since 1874 a strong prejudice against the Church, and acted very unfavourably on the labourers’ churchgoing. I had witnessed my father’s perplexities arising out of the terrible agricultural depression of the later ‘70’s.

I knew also that my predecessor, a very devout and sincere Tractarian [Ed. Montagu Osborn, Rector, 1851-1884], had been Rector of Kibworth for over thirty years, and that a rumour had gone about that I was intending to wreck all his work, and to hand the parish over to the Dissenters. So I was not unprepared for difficulties, and specially feared having to act as a landlord for some five hundred acres of glebe - a business with which I was wholly unacquainted - yet my living depended on it.

That which I feared most proved to be the least of all my difficulties. The brother of my fellow-curate at Holy Trinity, Oxford, had just given up a large farm in the county and retired to a house on the outskirts of Leicester. To his great kindness in consenting to act as my agent, and to the fairness of his dealings with my tenants, I owed a complete immunity from landlord’s work, and such a skilful management of the estate, that, in those very difficult years, it hardly depreciated in value. He knew the agricultural question from both sides, the owner’s and the cultivator’s, and had a sound and well-balanced judgment.

Other difficulties had to be faced as they came in my way. But it would be tedious as well as unfair to dwell on the “trials of a country parson,” after the fashion of one of my predecessors at Kibworth, James Beresford [Ed. Rector, 1812-1841], who wrote a book on the Minor Miseries of Human Life. Being a misogynist who vanished into the shrubbery at sight of a petticoat, whose maidservants turned their faces to the wall if they met him on the stairs, he had full experience of these miseries. It was the smoothness of the Kibworth waters rather than their roughness that perplexed me. I found there an education which Oxford could never have supplied; for lack whereof my subsequent experiences would have been considerably marred.

Rivalry between the communities of Kibworth Harcourt and Kibworth Beauchamp

Kibworth consisted of two parishes once independent of each other, but long ago merged.  At the same time the sentiment of independence was too precious to be lightly abandoned, and Kibworth Beauchamp, the home of “stockeners”, predominantly Radical, despised, and was despised by, Kibworth Harcourt, the home of the sporting squirearchy and retired businessmen of Leicester. In Kibworth Beauchamp were many small freeholds, bought by stockeners who turned out hosiery on frames in their cottages, or in very small factories. Part of this Kibworth was actually known by the name of “Radical”. In Kibworth Harcourt were several large houses, rented usually for longer or shorter terms by followers of the hounds.

Between the two was kept up a half-playful antagonism of which I had amusing experience in a vestry [meeting] very shortly after my arrival. A proposal to divert a footpath by a few yards, for the benefit of a “Harcourt” house-owner, needed the sanction of the vestry of the whole parish. As the object was to round off the garden of a parvenu solicitor it was represented as pernicious, land-grabbing, and the stockeners mustered in force to defend the precious short cut, which had been invaluable to them, so they said, from their school days. Fiery eloquence was poured forth with a passion such as I had never heard in Oxford. It was obvious, however, that it was a mere storm in a teacup, and my suggestion that the-solicitor should put up two much-needed lamps at one of the Church entrances, as an acknowledgment of benefit received, was accepted with a readiness that surprised me. I learnt afterwards that the solicitor was not very fond of giving quid pro quo, and that his acceptance of my proposal, though solemnly received was really regarded as a good practical joke.

On another occasion the vestry debated warmly the plan of a sewer which was to run down a road that divided the two villages. It was even suggested, with a fine disregard of costs, that two parallel sewers should be constructed, that the sewage of one village should not be “contaminated” by the waste of the other. It took me some time to learn how much of the passionate- talk on these occasions was serious, and how much mere display of village oratory. The Leicestershire man was a very grim jester!

Kibworth Grammar School

Kibworth presented two interesting survivals of old local history, the Grammar School and the Independent Chapel. The origin of the Grammar School was a chantry bequest for masses. The chantry priest very possibly filled up his abundant leisure by giving such an education as would save his scholars from the hangman’s noose by “benefit of clergy.” At the Reformation the endowment was used for a free Grammar School at which the villagers, without distinction of rank, received an education at the charge of a halfpenny a week. The son of the doctor sat on the same bench with the son of the labourer, and learnt the same lessons. The headmaster, a clergyman, could carry on the education of those who were making for Public Schools or even the Universities. On Sunday he could, and often did, discharge the duties of the absentee Rector.

The Charity Commission turned this school into a secondary school for sons of farmers paying substantial fees. The children of stockeners and labourers were told off to receive their education at the National school for a fee of two pence a week. It was, even in my time, one of the Radical grievances that the village had been robbed of its almost free education. What really mattered more, though they knew it not, was that a type of instruction had been established for the poor which effectively limited the goal of their education. The National school had no link with the Grammar School. This was an unintended, but a very real, injury, which more recent education laws are slowly reforming.

The Independent Chapel [Ed. The Congregational Chapel on Leicester Road, now a private residence]

The Independent Chapel was the outcome of the Act of Uniformity of 1662, which banished from the ministry of our Church all ministers who had not received Episcopal ordination. In my time the minister of that Chapel, very fittingly, was the local agent of the Liberation Society, and an ardent propagandist of Disestablishment. Leicester, in the time of the Great Rebellion, had fought hard on the Parliamentary side. The Kibworth Register of the period contained an entry on the following lines:

“During these years there was so much running to and fro that there was no time to make entries in this book.”

The Hazleriggs (a name of celebrity in the Great Rebellion [Ed. i.e. English Civil War]) were my near neighbours [Ed. Noseley Hall], and among my flock no doubt were descendants of those who had joined the Parliamentary standard under the great Arthur Hazlerigg of that date. It was therefore very natural that the minister of the Independent Chapel should be an ardent Liberationist, for it was in 1885 that the Disestablishment question became most acute. Wales was pledged almost solidly to the cause. Joseph Chamberlain and “ the Caucus “ were also its advocates, so were the followers of Joseph Arch. It was a very bitter spirit that was at work.

More than one of my parishioners said to me that he should not be satisfied till the Church - by which he meant the actual building - was pulled down and not one stone left upon another. From the local minister I received copies of literature circulated by his Society that led me to give two lectures in the parish school on the question of Disestablishment. Yet it came to pass that by showing sympathy with the minister when his daughter died, and by conducting her funeral in the burying-ground of the chapel, I so softened the good man’s heart that he resigned the secretaryship of the Society, and in this way I did more for the Establishment than my lectures had done.

It will be convenient at this point to mention that the Wesleyans had two Chapels in Kibworth Beauchamp, so that altogether the fifteen hundred parishioners had four pastors to attend to their spiritual needs; and the Nonconformist ministers, supported mainly by voluntary contributions, were able at all events to keep body and soul together. The parish Church which had some five hundred sittings, was well filled morning and night by two almost distinct congregations. We all four had flourishing Sunday schools and a sufficiency of teachers.

Kibworth taught me what could be done by a pastorate which attached importance to the care of’ individual souls. It also taught .me the value to the parish of a minister who has no occasion to regard the size of his flock as a measure of his income, and can be independent of monetary considerations. I saw how painful especially were the struggles of the two Wesleyans in Kibworth Beauchamp. For the first years of my Incumbency I had the aid of a curate, John Charles Wright - afterwards Archbishop of Sydney. Wright bad been one of my pupils at Merton, and came to me with a loyalty of devotion of which it was hard to feel myself worthy. He proved himself invaluable, both in the pulpit and as a visitor from house to house. Kibworth might almost be said to have been “spoilt” in those days.

Knowing that I was succeeding to almost forty years of Tractarian regime under the auspices of my predecessor, I was prepared to find some difficulties in following him. The rule that I formed in anticipation was that I would do nothing illegal, and use no illegal ornaments; with what was lawful I would not interfere. I found, in fact, that I had practically no changes to make.


Part 2 continues these reminiscences of Revd Knox during his time as Rector of Kibworth Parish - including Kibworth Rectory and Church Services

Rectors of Kibworth

Researched by Dr Kevin Feltham (1999)

Incumbent name

Instituted

Vacated

Reason

H. de Mortuomari

1220

-

William Treygoz

1239

-

Oliver de Sutton

-

1275

resigned

Thomas de Sutton

1276

1294

resigned

Roger Barbast

1294

-

Roger de Clisseby

1321

-

Giles Lovet

1371

-

John de Elvet

1399

1404

died

Richard Holte

1404

-

William Repyndon

-

1435

died

Mag. John Arundell MD

1435

1459

resigned

John Arundell

1459

1510

Walter Lucas

1510

1534

Richard Pates AM

1534

1541

attainted

Francis Turpyn

1542

1545

William Watkyn

1545

1554

deprived

Edward Gregory

1554

1565

William Berridge

1565

1601

John Berridge DD

1602

1632

died

William Berridge AM

1632

1641

died

William Hunt BD

1641

1645

ejected

John Yaxley (A Puritan)

1647

1660

ejected

Robert Edwards BD

1662

1704

died

William Vincent AM

1704

1741

died

Richard Vincent

1741

1747

-

Peter Shuter MA

1748

1769

resigned

Christopher H. Walker MA

1769

1779

died

James Norman BD

1780

1812

-

James Beresford MA

1812

1841

died

William Ricketts MA

1841

1844

died

Stuart Eyre Bathurst MA

1844

1851

resigned

Montagu F.F. Osborn MA

1851

1884

resigned

Edmund A. Knox MA

1884

1891

resigned

Charles T. Cruttwell MA

1891

1901

resigned

Edward S.B. Fletcher MA

1902

1933

died

Henry J.T. Eacott MA

1934

1943

died

A. Wyndham Ottaway MA

1943

1949

died

Paul E. Rebbeck MA

1949

1952

resigned

Denis A.J. Ireland MA

1953

1978

died

Frederick W. Dawson BA, M.Th.

1979

1994

resigned

Steven M. Lee BA

1995

2006

resigned

Ludger Fremmer

2007

-

Current Rector

The mystery of Lewis Powell Williams

Attached to the outside, southern wall of St. Wilfrid’s Church in Kibworth Beauchamp in Leicestershire is a memorial slate tablet which reads:

SlateLPW

"In Memoriam, Lewis Powell Williams, Surgeon. He departed life January the 9th 1771 in the 40th year of his age. He was the first that introduced into practice inoculation without preparation in this kingdom."

In 1995 Steven Lee, the then Rector of Kibworth, received an enquiry from a John Godwin who had moved recently from Lichfield to Leicestershire. Mr Godwin, a frequent contributor of historical articles to the Leicester Now monthly magazine, was puzzled by the tablet because he knew that smallpox inoculation had been introduced to the UK by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in 1721.  Intrigued by this dichotomy, as a microbiology student, I contacted the Jenner Educational Trust to learn more about the treatment of smallpox and to try and find some additional information about Lewis Powell Williams.  Here are the results of my research.

Smallpox was already entrenched in parts of Europe, Asia and Africa when in the 16th and 17th centuries European colonists carried the disease to the Americas. In London, smallpox killed one person in twelve and left disfiguring scars on thousands of survivors. Queen Mary, wife of William III died of the disease in 1694, as did Queen Anne’s son in 1700.  Yet within 300 years, by May 1980, the World Health Organisation proclaimed the worldwide eradication of this devastating disease principally by the means of “vaccination”, a safer procedure invented by Edward Jenner (1749-1823) won much fame after noticing that milking girls, who contracted cowpox were also immune from the much more dangerous smallpox (see lithograph drawing below). However, Jenner was not the first to offer a means of acquiring immunity to smallpox. There are ancient records indicating that the Chinese used some form of inoculation as early as the 10th century. Immunity was apparently achieved by provoking a mild form of the disease in healthy people, for example by blowing powdered smallpox scabs up their noses!

However, by the 18th century a more intrusive form of inoculation was being used - the deliberate gashing of the arm and then placing of a large volume of fluid from a smallpox blister in the wound. The healthy patient was prepared with fasting and purging to lower the patient’s strength. This harsh treatment usually provoked a mild form of the disease, resulting in long-lasting immunity. There were risks, however, as it had a low success rate and patients could still transmit the disease to non-immune contacts for a few days after treatment.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (née Pierrepoint) was born in 1689 to an aristocratic family and lived in Thoresby Hall in Nottinghamshire. Mary eloped with Edward Wortley Montagu, the Whig MP for Huntingdon, and they married in 1712. A year later, Mary was shocked by the death of her brother, William, who had contracted smallpox. Mary caught the disease herself in 1715 but recovered with minimal scarring but her eyelashes never grew again!  She was a prolific letter and essay writer and friend of the satirist, Alexander Pope.  In 1716, Edward Wortley Montagu MP was appointed Ambassador to Turkey, a country which was friendly to Britain but at war with Austria. Mary and their newly born son, Edward, accompanied the new Ambassador together with a surgeon, Charles Maitland, and a large retinue of servants.

In 1717, while at Adrianople (modern Edirne), she heard that two Turkish doctors had published articles about a new procedure for protection against smallpox which was being used in Africa, India and the Ottoman Empire.  Mary took an interest and wrote to a friend about the practice of ‘ingrafting’ against smallpox. She described how, each September, the older women visited groups of young people by arrangement and simply placed a small quantity of "the matter of the best sort of smallpox" on the end of a needle and inserted it into a vein (known as variolation), after which the small wound was bound up. Eight days later the young people had a mild fever lasting two days, after which they were immune to smallpox. Thousands were treated each year and the procedure had an excellent safety record.

The following year, on 18th March 1718, she allowed her five year old son, Edward, to be treated. The ‘ingrafting’ was carried out by "an old Greek woman, who had practised a great many years" and supervised by Dr Maitland.  Edward Wortley Montagu therefore became the first native of the UK to undergo this operation.

Jenner

The Wortley Montagus returned to England, and in 1721 a smallpox epidemic swept the country. Mary had written articles anonymously about her experiences with smallpox treatment in Turkey, and she now asked Dr Maitland to inoculate her three year old daughter, Mary.  Later he inoculated other people in London, under Lady Mary’s patronage. Her campaign was helped by her friend, the Princess of Wales, who suggested the new treatment be tested on six condemned Newgate prisoners.  All six survived and, as recompense, were discharged as free citizens. The Princess’ two daughters were later inoculated with complete success using this variolation method. There were setbacks however, and it seemed the practice would not gain general acceptance. Some clergy believed the disease was one of God’s tools for shaping the destiny of man, so it would be sinful to try and outwit him! Then the Royal Society of London began to receive reports of the dramatic success of the technique in Massachusetts. The Rev. Cotton Mather, a Congregational minister in Boston, had read the Turkish accounts and despite opposition from sections of the clergy, remarkable results had been achieved. The 1721 Boston epidemic saw 6,000 afflicted with smallpox and 844 died. Mather encouraged all Boston doctors to use the method by informing them of the efficacy of ‘ingrafting’.

Who was Lewis Powell Williams? In a bid to discover more about him the Kibworth Parish Register for 1771 was inspected while it was still kept in the Vestry of St. Wilfrid's Church (now archived in the Leicestershire Records in Wigston). All entries for deaths during that year included the village or town of residence except for one entry - 9th January - Lewis Powell Williams -stranger. We can only presume he died suddenly while travelling through the parish as the King’s Highway (now the A6) was a major north-south route, and that sometime later relatives or friends erected the tablet. He still remained a man of mystery until in 1998 a local historian, Dr Christine Viall, gave me some more information that she had unearthed during research on Northamptonshire records.

Peter Razzell in his book, "Conquest of Smallpox" (1977) writes that the first inoculator to completely dispense with preparation was a surgeon by the name of Williams who placed an advertisement in the Northampton Mercury at the end of 1768:

‘INOCULATION WITHOUT PREPARATION (Established by a five years successful Experience, commonly called the Williams Short Method). Mr Williams . . . and a Number of Partners, have inoculated and lightly carried through many thousand persons without the usual tedious and too often injurious preparative Treatment by very strict Diet and strong Mercurial Purges ...’

So the "man of mystery" is now shown to have been an entrepreneurial doctor who took the Turkish variolation practice, simplified the technique so it could be used routinely, and set up in business in the Northampton area.

Twenty five years after Williams' death, Edward Jenner introduced in 1796 a truly safe form of inoculation with cowpox, a mild illness, and he showed that this also protected against smallpox. This new "vaccination" (after vacca - Latin for a ‘cow’) spread rapidly and childhood mortality greatly decreased. Inoculation with "live" smallpox was prohibited by law in 1840 but it was still practised in Afghanistan and China until the 1970s. Now, since the WHO 1980 proclamation, the smallpox virus can only be found in research establishments and even these final bastions are expected to be destroyed soon.

stw2001   steeple
St WIlfrid's Church with steeple c.1791                                       Picture of the disaster 1825

Extract fromTHE GENTLEMAN’S MAGAZINE, August 1825

by James Beresford, (Rector of Kibworth 1812-1841) Kibworth Rectory 27 July, 1825

The awful event which has recently taken place at Kibworth, Co. Leicester, together with the causes that led to it, having been previously represented, I deem it proper to request your insertion of the following particulars authenticated by my own personal observation.

At 9 o’clock in the forenoon of Saturday last (Ed. 23rd July, 1825), the ancient and venerable tower and spire of Kibworth Church fell to the ground. Various symptoms of decay, about the lower part of the S.W. angle, had been discovered, and partially remedied, above 2 years ago. The originally defective materials having, since that period, more visibly yielded to the pressure of the superincumbent mass, Mr. Wm. Parsons, of Leicester, was called in about a month ago to inspect the state of the tower, and, under his direction, the masons had made considerable progress in the work of reparation. On Thursday last, however, the fissures and which had appeared in numerous places - were found to have increased in so alarming a degree, that Mr. Parsons was again summoned without loss of time. On his arrival on Friday morning, he ordered that the tower should be propped with inclining beams, till permanent support could be given, by removing all the decayed parts and supplying their place with strong masonry. The carpenters began their operations on Saturday morning, but were almost immediately compelled to desist. Violent disruptions in various places, accompanied by threatening sounds were now incessantly going on, and the site was left to its inevitable fate.

A short time before the final event, I had been informed at the Rectory that Mr. Oldfield, who had just arrived from Leicester, for the purpose of beginning to paint the pews, desired to see me at the Church. Unacquainted as yet with the imminent danger, of which Mr. Oldfield had been equally ignorant, I immediately went to Church, entered at the Chancel door, advanced towards the West end where the mischief was gathering, heard the noises before mentioned, suddenly retired by the same door, proceeded round the East end towards the North gate of the Church yard and there found the different workmen with a few other persons intensely watching the steeple, and, as they told me, every moment expecting its fall. I took my station among them, and in less than a minute after several premonitory crashings, the whole fabric bowed from the summit over the base, paused for a few seconds, and then, as with one collective effort, came down in a thundering cataract of ruins. A thousand years could not efface the impression made upon soul and my senses by the grand, the astounding catastrophe.

Through the immediate and most merciful interposition of God’s providence not a life was lost, not the slightest bodily injury sustained by human being.

Praise be to His Holy Name!

 

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