In 1235-36 Richard de Harcourt was holding land in Kibworth from the Earl of Warwick, and it is probable that this was the manor of Kibworth Harcourt. The Harcourt family retained the manor until 1265 at which time the size of the manor was calculated for Exchequer purposes and gives an insight into the estate and its value;
One mesuage and 10 virgates in demense worth £7 12s 0d., 18½ virgates in villeinage of land, each virgate being worth 16s per annum.
Rents from free tenements and cottars amount to 38s 10d. per annum.
Fixed rent from 1 virgate free land worth 6s 8d. per annum.
One mill worth 20s 8d. per annum in rents.
A render of 4 capons at Christmas worth 6d.
Total value of the manor, £26 0s 8d. per annum
In 1265 the manor was seized from Saer de Harcourt by Henry Ⅲ because of Saer’s allegiance to Simon de Montfort (Earl of Leicester) who led the rebellion against the King. In 1267, the King handed over the manor to William Mauduit, Earl of Warwick.
In 1267 the King pardoned Saer de Harcourt and the manor was returned to him in 1268 by William Mauduit’s widow. However it is believed the Saer had financial problems and in consequence he transferred, possibly as security for debt, the manor, less the advowson, to John le Ferron, a Farrier of London.
On October 23 1270 John le Ferron granted to Walter of Merton the manor of Kibworth, with the advowson of the chapel of the same manor and on the 26ᵺ of the same month Saer of Harcourt granted to Walter of Merton, for the sum of £400, the manor of Kibworth Harcourt which John le Ferron held. The payment of £400 by Walter of Merton to Saer de Harcourt for the manor of Kibworth Harcourt appeared to be below the actual value of the manor possibly due to the Saer anxiety to urgently raise money.
On May 15 1271 the manor of Kibworth Harcourt was legally transferred from John le Farron and Saer de Harcourt to Walter of Merton.
Walter died in 1277 and he had six heirs. Two of Walter’s heirs gave up their shares to Merton College in 1278. After protracted negotiations and some substantial payments the remaining heirs gave up their shares of the manor to Merton College. This resulted in Merton College holding the whole of the Kibworth Harcourt manor.
There was a lesser manor in Kibworth Harcourt in the early reign of King Henry Ⅲ which was held by Lawrence of Apetoft. William de Harcourt, Saer de Harcourt’s grandfather, had granted 10 virgates of land to Lawrence of Apetoft during the early part of the 13th century. The Apetoft manor appears to have remained separate from the main Kibworth Harcourt manor and passed through a number of hands before being held by John le Ferron and subsequently by Walter of Merton. The Apetoft manor was granted to two fellows of Merton College, Master Henry of Fodringeye and Master Robert of Cardevre c1295 who in turn conveyed the manor to Merton College. This conveyance was challenged by the Earl of Warwick, however in 1300-1 King Edward Ⅰ dismissed the challenge and the conveyance of the Apetoft manor to Merton College was confirmed and became part of the main manor of Kibworth Harcourt.
Merton College holds the manor to the present day.
Written by David Adams
Clare and Steve Langan
British History on Line
R.H. Hilton, Kibworth Harcourt A Merton College Manor in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
Where Main Street, leads into Albert Street the road widens at the junction and is fronted by The Old House, a superb Carolean Grade I Listed house of 1678 (see Early Modern/The Old House). The curved iron railings of the Old House on Main Street encroach on the space which once formed a market area and where stood a market cross along with the village pump, and a water trough.
Manor House has medieval origins and is a Grade II listed building. Originally a peasant house in the 14th century, it became the Bailiff’s house in the 15th and 16th centuries. After that it was a yeoman farmer’s house however it has never been a Manorial House.
Adam Brown, a merchant of considerable standing, lived in the house which later became known as Manor House although it is shown in Merton College archives as ‘Brown’s Place’ no doubt because Adam Brown and his family lived there during the 14th and 15th centuries.
Dendrochronological investigation when the Story of England TV series was being filmed showed that the oldest part of the house dates from somewhere between 1320 and 1350.
Manor House was occupied in 1558 by a courtier of Queen Mary, Sir Thomas Ray and it remained in his family until 1706 when the Foxton family lived there. The next occupant was the Reverend Thomas Thomas, incumbent of Isham and Curate of East Farndon followed by his nephew, John Philips who carried out rebuilding works in the mid 19th Century. It was sold by Merton College, owners of the surrounding land, in 1972 to Mr P Thurnham.
The Manor House was originally a timber-framed building on an ironstone base. Its main front faces east and its south wall abuts on the village street. The house may be medieval in origin but, apart from its internal timbers, it shows little sign of antiquity. The exterior has been faced with brick and much altered, both at the end of the 17th century and in 1860. The exposed ceiling joists in the front ground-floor room of the south wing are tenoned into a diagonal 'dragon' beam. This indicates that this side wing originally had a timber-framed upper story, jettied on two sides.
An unusual feature is the letter box in the wall of the house on Main Street, and the Sun Insurance Company’s insurance plaque higher up. The garden wall, built by John Philips is decorated in a distinctive pattern of bricks known as diapering, while to the left of the garden entrance gateway are three terracotta plaques with the dates thereon of 1475, which indicates the first stone building on the site; 1695 when the building was faced in brick and 1860 when further additions were built, together with the present garden wall.
Michael Wood ‘The Story of England’
British History on line
Philip Doddridge was born after thirty-six hours labour in London in 1702. He was the last of twenty children of Daniel Dandridge, a prosperous merchant, and his wife, Monica. Philip and his sister Elizabeth were the only survivors of the twenty children.
From an early age his mother began to teach him the history of the Old New Testament In his youth, Philip Doddridge was educated first by a tutor employed by his parents and he was later boarded at a private school in London.
Following the deaths of both his parents a Mr Downes, his late father’s business partner, assumed guardianship of Philip. Downes moved him to a school in St Albans where the principal was Dr Nathanial Wood, a Nonconformist Minister. Whilst at this school he became acquainted with Revd. Samuel Clark, a Presbyterian minister and he joined Clarke’s church.
His guardian Downs declared himself bankrupt having squandered the majority of Philip’s inheritance. Now destitute Philip was given shelter by his sister Elizabeth and her husband.
He felt called to the ministry but with his financial situation the opportunity of finishing his education had disappeared. However The Duchess of Bedford offered to finance his education providing he would promise to become an Anglican clergyman. Doddridge had set his mind on becoming a Dissenting minister and refused her offer. Samuel Clark then offered to finance Doddridge's studies and found him a place at a Dissenting academy in Kibworth Harcourt. The academy was situated at the rear of the ‘Old Crown Inn’, now ‘The White House’ on the right-hand side of the main A6 Leicester Road just beyond the Main Street junction, when travelling north.
The dissenting academy in Kibworth was founded in1715 and run by John Jennings. Initially in Kibworth Harcourt until 1722 at which time the academy moved to Hinckley. Following the death of Jennings in 1723 the academy closed. Doddridge was one of the last pupils to complete Jennings’s course, and his correspondence from that time contains a wealth of information about the quality of the courses at Jennings’s academy. Jennings’s innovative teaching methods were scholarly and liberal, students were encouraged to read widely in philosophy, theology and history as well as receiving a thorough training in classical, biblical, and modern languages, mathematics, physics and geography.
In 1725 Doddridge moved to Market Harborough and whilst ministering to a rural community around Kibworth he continued a self-directed course of further education. Philip Doddridge opened a Dissenting academy in Market Harborough in 1729 and began to take a small group of students through a course of lectures based on those he had attended at John Jennings’s academy. His lectures were published after his death as ‘ A Course of Lectures on the Principal Subjects in Pneumatology, Ethics and Divinity’ .
In September of that year he received an invitation to become pastor at the Castle Hill Church, Northampton and after much thought and a lot of persuasion he accepted the post. In December 1729 he moved to Northampton and in the following year he opened an academy at Castle Hill.
He married Mercy Maris on 22 December 1730.
Realising Northampton needed a hospital, Doddridge ran a successful campaign in 1743 with a newly arrived doctor, James Stonhouse, and they raised sufficient funds to establish the first infirmary by the end of that year. Fifty years later in 1793, the infirmary was moved to a bigger site and is now Northampton General Hospital. Both men are listed as the hospital’s founders.
Doddridge was a prolific writer. His book ‘The Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul’ first published 1745 was translated into seven languages. Reading this book led William Wilberforce, the anti-slave trade campaigner, to become a Christian. Besides a New Testament commentary and other theological works, Doddridge also wrote over 400 hymns of which many are in common use. Most of the hymns were written as summaries of his sermons designed to help the congregation express their response to the truths they were being taught. A well-known hymn of Doddridge's is ‘O happy day that fixed my choice, On Thee my Saviour and my God’. It was written in the middle of the eighteenth century and was originally entitled, "Rejoicing in our Covenant. Engagement with God". It was a fitting choice by Queen Victoria when one of the princesses was being confirmed.
Doddridge’s health had never been very good and in 1751 his health deteriorated due to tuberculosis and on the advice of his doctor he went to Lisbon. He sailed for Lisbon on 30 September 1751 however his condition did not improve with the change of climate and he died on 26th October 1751. Philip Doddridge was buried in the British Cemetery in Lisbon.
On Saturday 13 April 2013 Malcolm Deacon, author of ‘Philip Doddridge of Northampton’ unveiled a Blue Heritage Plaque commemorating the life of Philip Doddridge at The White House, 51/53 Leicester Road, Kibworth
The old centre of Kibworth Harcourt lies 200 yards east of the present main road where the principal street, known as Main Street, leads into Albert Street and has remained much the same since mediaeval times and is the main part of The Kibworth Harcourt Conservation Area.. The principal route along Main Street was bypassed by the present A6 Leicester Road in 1810. (see Modern/ TheTurnpikeRoute through Kibworth Harcourt).
Main Street runs from Leicester Road in in an easterly direction until it reaches The Old House (see Early Modern/The Old House) when it turns right to return to the main road near the old Rose and Crown Hotel. The dog leg pattern of roads by the present Main Street and the Nook existed in 1484.
Main Street was very much the heart of Kibworth Harcourt and as one travels along the road from the old Rose and Crown Hotel the historical significance of the road becomes apparent.
Taking a walk down Main Street from The Rose and Crown the first section of the street was formerly known as the King’s Highway, or Berry’s Hill and used to have several shops and Inns (see Modern/A Journey Inn the Past). Berry’s slaughterhouse and butcher’s was at no. 10 and gave this part of Main Street the name Berry’s Hill after ‘Beefy’ Berry, the butcher between the two World Wars.
15 Main Street was ‘The Smithy’, housing the local wheelwright, a vitally important trade in the days of horse drawn transport. The forge was still in service until the 1940s. Legend has it that the wheel of a wagon belonging to the famous preacher John Wesley was repaired here when he passed through the village on one of his evangelical journeys.
Turning to the left this section of Main Street boasted three Inns, thFoxInn at 16, the Navigation Inn at 24, opposite was the Admiral Nelson at 31 which had a skittle alley at the rear and ceased trading in the 1930’s.
No 18 was the Old Bakehouse, this was a baker’s complete with delivery yard at the rear of the building. The end of the Old Bakehouse used to be perfectly square but several coaching accidents occurred at this spot and the end wall was rebuilt at the angle you can see today. At least one accident resulted in a fatality when a coach overturned and several outside passengers were pitched through the windows of nearby houses.
A barn, formerly situated to the rear of 25 Main Street was, it is believed, in the early 19th century, the setting for the Kibworth Theatre (see Modern/Kibworth Theater).
As Main Street reaches the Old House we turn to the left back towards the Leicester Road.
The abundance of Inns continued with The Red Lion at 78 Main Street and at 88 The Three Horseshoes Inn, now trading as Boboli’s, an Italian style restaurant.
The Inn was once owned by Merton College and was sold in 1935 to The Northampton Brewery Company.
On the opposite side of Main Street is the Manor Farmhouse which has medieval origins and is a Grade II listed building. (see Medieval/ Manor House /Manor Farmhouse).
Next we come to Priory Farm at 41 Main Street which is a 16th Century Grade II listed building, formerly known as Ivy Cottage. It is a rectangular house built partly of ironstone with a timber framed upper storey, later faced with brick. The use of differing materials indicates that the house was built in stages over many years.
Continuing towards Leicester Road and on the left is no. 43, The Limes built on the site of an older property. The Limes is an extensive villa dated 1880. In amongst much older buildings, this imposing house, which had extensive stabling and paddocks at the rear, is a good example of Victorian domestic architecture.
Leicestershire’s first turnpike road was a section of the main road between London and West Scotland which is now the A6. The road was built in 1726 and ran through Loughborough, Leicester, Kibworth Harcourt and Market Harborough.
The Turnpike Acts authorised Trusts to levy tolls on those using the road and to use that income to repair and improve the road. Trusts could also purchase property to widen or divert existing roads. The trusts were not-for-profit and maximum tolls were set. In 1726 the first Turnpike Trusts, in Leicestershire were the Market Harborough to Leicester and the Loughborough to Leicester Trusts
The Kibworth Harcourt section ran along the current A6 Leicester Road from Leicester turning left into Main Street then following the dogleg of Main Street back onto the Leicester Road at the Rose and Crown Coaching Inn. At first the turnpike road was surfaced with gravel and small stones, but towards the end of the 18th century granite chippings from Mountsorrel began to be used.
In 1766, a fast public stagecoach service commenced from Leicester to London. Coaching Inns were built along the road examples being the Rose and Crown Inn and the Coach and Horses Inn in Kibworth Harcourt.
Travelers were often fearful of being robbed by highwaymen and the Leicester Journal for 12 December 1775 reported that: ‘On Sunday night last the coach bound for London was stopped by a single highwayman near to the second milestone on the Harboro’ Road. He took from the passengers about £14; told them that necessity obliged him to do that or go to goal’.
The first mail coaches passed through Kibworth Harcourt in 1785 and were apparently quite a spectacle. The carriages had emblazoned arms, the coachmen and guards in scarlet and gold. A blunderbuss slung over the guards’ shoulders, with pistols in their belts.
Examples of Royal Mail Coaches
A report by the Turnpike Trust on the route along the dogleg section of Main Street concluded that; ‘The man who could gallop a four in hand through such lanes must have been hard to find’. This report followed a number of accidents and at least one resulted in a fatality, when a coach overturned and several outside passengers were pitched through the windows of nearby houses. The report resulted in a new turnpike route bypassing Main Street which followed the line of the current A6 Leicester Road between the Main Street junctions. This bypass was opened in 1810 and built at a cost of £1,500.00. Such improvements were funded by the payment of tolls by the road users, Examples of the annual income from tolls for the Market Harborough to Loughborough Trusts are: 1834 £5592: 1835 £6798: 1838 £5911.
In 1822 the whole road was surfaced in tarmac. The volume of traffic began to increase until the railway between Leicester and London opened in 1875 when turnpike traffic dwindled and the Turnpike Trust was wound up in 1878.
Writteb by David Adams
The Leicester Journal
Who Were The Beaker People?
The Bell-Beaker culture, sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk, c. 2900 – 1800 BC is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture' of prehistoric western Europe starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age. They were called Beaker because of the shape of their pottery vessels.
The Beaker People were farmers and archers were also the first metalsmiths in Britain, working first in copper and gold, and later in bronze, given its name to the Bronze Age.
The Burial Ground.
A burial ground of Beaker People was found in 1975 situated to the south west of Smeeton Westerby on Smeeton Hill The hill is 500 feet high and on the west side of the hill lies the Beaker Burial Ground. No trace of a burial mound is visible on the ground but the situation would be ideal for one.
The site was discovered during drainage excavations work when at one point the contractor had to excavate a hole by hand to replace a broken section of pipe. It was during this work that the burial site was discovered and human bones and pottery were unearthed. The drainage work carried on and the burial site continued to be disturbed and some artefacts were removed although the majority were subsequently recovered.
Leicestershire Museums were notified and on 3rd September 1975 a team from the museum attended the site. They enlarged the hole and discovered a crouched burial. A crouched burial was a new form of burial rite, called the Beaker burial which began to appear around 4700 years ago, the burial is crouched inhumation where the body is interred, usually on its side with the hip and knee joints bent through an angle of more than 90 degrees, accompanied by a particular pottery known as a beaker. The burial was removed to Leicester Museum;
Beaker Close in Smeeton Westerby is a reminder of this important archaeological find.
Written by David Adams
R A Rutland, ‘A Beaker Burial at Smeeton Westerby, Leicestershire 1875’
Sir Nicholas Harold Lloyd Ridley (1906 – 2001)
Nicholas Harold Lloyd Ridley was born on 10 July 1906 at Little Lebanon, 70 Leicester Road, Kibworth Beauchamp (formerly known as The Gables). Nicholas was the son of Nicholas Charles Ridley and his wife Margaret, née Parker. As a child he met and sat on the lap of Florence Nightingale, a close friend of his mother.
He was educated at Charterhouse School before studying at Pembroke College, Cambridge from 1924–1927 and completed his medical training in 1930 at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Subsequently he worked as a surgeon at both St Thomas' Hospital and Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, specialising in ophthalmology. In 1938 Ridley was appointed full surgeon and consultant at Moorfields Hospital and later appointed consultant surgeon in 1946.
Harold Ridley began to formulate an answer to the problem of cateracts during the Second World War (Cataracts are regions of dead cells which occur in late middle age within the eye lens, turning it hard and opaque. If untreated they can result in total blindness.)